Bibliographies

World War One British tank.
"Mark I 'Male' Tank of 'C' Company". © IWM (Q 2486). Source: https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205194947

A list of all cited source materials, known as a bibliography, must be included at the end of your essay. A History bibliography is divided into two sections: primary sources and secondary sources. Each of these sections need to be in alphabetical order.

 

Each bibliographical reference needs:

  • the author's last name followed by their first initial(s)
  • the year of publication
  • the name of the work (in italics)
  • the publication details

Correct Format for Different Source Types


Books

Required Elements:

Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of Book. City of Publication: Name of Publishing Company.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Author Unknown Author. (2004). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.
1 Author Smith, J. (2004). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.
Unknown Date Smith, J. (n.d.). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.
Unknown Author and Date Unknown Author. (n.d.). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.
2 Authors Smith, J., & Jones, B. (2004). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.
3 or More Authors Smith, J., Jones, B., & Taylor, A. (2004). History is an Awesome Subject. New York: Harper's Publishing.

Academic Journal Articles

Required Elements:

Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month of Publication). Article Title. Name of Journal the Article Appeared in. Journal Volume Number (Issue Number), page numbers of the article.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Author Unknown Author. (2004, January). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.
1 Author Smith, J. (2004, January). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.
Unknown Date Smith, J. (n.d.). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.
Unknown Author and Date Unknown Author. (n.d.). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.
2 Authors Smith, J., & Jones, B. (2004, January). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.
3 or More Authors Smith, J., Jones, B., & Taylor, A. (2004, January). Studying History at School. History Teachers' Journal. 67 (2), pp 12-9.

Newspaper or Magazine Articles

Required Elements:

Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month Day of Publication). Article Title. Name of Newspaper/Magazine the Article Appeared in, page number(s) of the article.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Journalist Unknown Journalist. (2004, January 26). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
1 Author Smith, J. (2004, January 26). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
Unknown Date Smith, J. (n.d.). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
Unknown Journalist and Date Unknown Journalist. (n.d.). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
2 Authors Smith, J., & Jones, B. (2004, January 26). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
3 or More Authors Smith, J., Jones, B., & Taylor, A. (2004, January 26). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13.
Online Article Smith, J. (2004, January 26). Students Gave Full Attention in Class. The Daily News, pp 13. Retrieved from http://thisisnotarealurl.com/notarealarticle/.

Speeches

Required Elements:

Speaker's Surname, First Initials. (Year, Month Day Speech was Given). Title of Speech. Institution, City the Speech was Given at/in.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Speaker Unknown Speaker. (2004, January 26). History is an Awesome Subject. Capital University, New York.
1 Speaker Smith, J. (2004, January 26). History is an Awesome Subject. Capital University, New York.
Unknown Date Smith, J. (n.d.). History is an Awesome Subject. Capital University, New York.
Unknown Speaker and Date Unknown Speaker. (n.d.). History is an Awesome Subject. Capital University, New York.

Web Page

Required Elements:

Author's Surname, First Initials. (Year of Publication). Name of Web Page. Name of Website. Retrieved from: URL.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Author Unknown Author. (2019). Bibliographies. History Skills. https://www.historyskills.com/referencing/bibliographies/.
1 Author James, M. (2019). Bibliographies. History Skills. https://www.historyskills.com/referencing/bibliographies/.
No Date James, M. (n.d.). Bibliographies. History Skills. https://www.historyskills.com/referencing/bibliographies/.
Unknown Author and Date Unknown Author. (n.d.). Bibliographies. History Skills. https://www.historyskills.com/referencing/bibliographies/.

Ancient Sources

Required Elements:

Author's Name. (Name of Modern Translator that You're Using, trans.). Name of Ancient Work. Location of Modern Translation's Publisher: Name of Modern Translation's Publishing Company, Year of Modern Translation's Publication.

 

Examples:

Number of Authors Example Bibliographical Reference
 Unknown Author Unknown Author. (John Carter, trans.). The Civil Wars. New York: Penguin, 1996.
1 Author Appian. (John Carter, trans.). The Civil Wars. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Referencing a Source Found in Another Source


On some occasions you find a source in the pages of different source. Your first task should be to try and quote the source you have found separately from the book that it is in. Do this, look in the bibliography of the book in order to gain the necessary details.


However, if you cannot find the information necessary to create a separate bibliographical entry, you will need to create a bibliographical entry that acknowledges the book that the source was found in.


To do this you will need:

  • as many of the details that you can find of the source you are using. (Anything you don't know is left out).
  • the full bibliographical details of the book it was found in, along with the page number in the book where the source was found. This is preceded by the phrase "As found in" and the entire bibliographical reference is placed in brackets.


For example:


Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).

An Example Bibliography


Bibliography

Primary Sources

 

Appian (John Carter, trans). The Civil Wars. New York: Penguin, 1996.

 

Department of Defence. (1959). Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy. Canberra: Department of Defence.

 

Department of Defence. (1976). Defence White Paper. Canberra: Department of Defence.

 

Millar, T. (1979). The Political-Military Relationship in Australia. Strategic and Defence Studies Centre Working Paper, 6, pp. 12.

 

Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).

 

Secondary Sources

 

Dibb, P. (2007). The Self-Reliant Defence of Australia: The History of an Idea. (As found in  Huisken, R., & Thatcher., M. (eds). History as Policy: Framing the Debate on the Future of Australia’s Defence Policy. Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, pp. 11-26).

 

Horner, D. (1997). Security Objectives. (As found in Mediansky, F. (ed). Australian Foreign Policy: Into the New Millennium. South Melbourne: Macmillan, pp. 73-92).

 

Lawson, E. (2009). The Australian Defence Environment. Australian Defence Force Journal, 179, pp. 70-81.

 

White, H. (2007). Four Decades of the Defence of Australia: Reflections on Australian Defence Policy over the Past 40 Years. (As found in Huisken, R & Thatcher, M. (eds). History as Policy: Framing the Debate on the Future of Australia’s Defence Policy. Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, pp. 163-187).