Bibliographies

World War One British tank.
World War One British tank. Source: http://galleryhip.com

A list of all cited source materials, known as a bibliography, must be included at the end of your essay. A History bibliography is divided into two sections: primary sources and secondary sources. Each of these sections need to be in alphabetical order.

 

Each bibliographical reference needs:

  • the author's last name followed by their first initial(s)
  • the year of publication
  • the name of the work (in italics)
  • the publication details

Here are examples of how to list correctly different types of source information.


Book

 

Reference type

Example

No author

Unknown Author. (2004). Be, Know, Do: Leadership the Army Way. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

1 author

Berkman, R. (1994). Find it Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on Any Subject. New York: Harper Perennial.

 

2 authors

Cengel, Y., & Boles, M. (1994). Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach. London: McGraw Hill.

3 or more authors

Reid, D., Parsons, M., & Green, C. (1989). Staff Management in Human Services: Behavioral Research and Application. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas.

   

Journal Article

 

Reference type

Example

Journal articles

Huffman, L. (1996). Processing whey protein for use as a food ingredient. Food Technology, 50(2), pp. 49-52.

   

Newspaper and magazine article

 

Reference type

Example

Newspaper article (print)

Simpson, L. (1997, October 13). Tasmania’s railway goes private. Australian Financial Review, pp. 10.

Newspaper article (web)

Porteous, C. (2007, August 15), Rudd blamed for drought. Courier Mail, p. 17. Retrieved from http://global.factiva.com/.

 

Speeches

 

Reference type

Example

1 speaker

Carmichael, S (1966, October). Black Power Address. University of California Berkeley.

 

 

Web page
 

Reference type

Example

1 author

Albanese, A (2009). Fairer compensation for air travellers. Retrieved from http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/ aa/releases/2009/January/AA007_2009.htm.

No author

Pet therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.holissticonline.com/stress_pet-therapy.htm.

No date

Bliss, S. (n.d.). The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions.  Retrived from http://eqi.org/mgtpaper.htm.



Referencing Ancient Sources

If you are studying Ancient History and you have referenced ancient writers in your essay, those works need to appear in your bibliography also. However, the format of the bibliographical reference is slightly different.


You need to state:

  • the ancient author's name
  • the name of the name of the translator (in brackets)
  • the name of the ancient work (in italics)
  • the publication details of the modern translation


For example:


Appian (John Carter, trans). The Civil Wars. New York: Penguin, 1996.


Referencing a Source Found in Another Source

On some occasions you find a source in the pages of different source. Your first task should be to try and quote the source you have found separately from the book that it is in. Do this, look in the bibliography of the book in order to gain the necessary details.


However, if you cannot find the information necessary to create a separate bibliographical entry, you will need to create a bibliographical entry that acknowledges the book that the source was found in.


To do this you will need:

  • as many of the details that you can find of the source you are using. (Anything you don't know is left out).
  • the full bibliographical details of the book it was found in, along with the page number in the book where the source was found. This is preceded by the phrase "As found in" and the entire bibliographical reference is placed in brackets.


For example:


Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).


An Example Bibliography

Bibliography

Primary Sources

 

Appian (John Carter, trans). The Civil Wars. New York: Penguin, 1996.

 

Department of Defence. (1959). Strategic Basis of Australian Defence Policy. Canberra: Department of Defence.

 

Department of Defence. (1976). Defence White Paper. Canberra: Department of Defence.

 

Millar, T. (1979). The Political-Military Relationship in Australia. Strategic and Defence Studies Centre Working Paper, 6, pp. 12.

 

Nixon, R. (1969). (As found in US Government Printing Office 1969, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard Nixon, Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, pp. 903).

 

Secondary Sources

 

Dibb, P. (2007). The Self-Reliant Defence of Australia: The History of an Idea. (As found in  Huisken, R., & Thatcher., M. (eds). History as Policy: Framing the Debate on the Future of Australia’s Defence Policy. Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, pp. 11-26).

 

Horner, D. (1997). Security Objectives. (As found in Mediansky, F. (ed). Australian Foreign Policy: Into the New Millennium. South Melbourne: Macmillan, pp. 73-92).

 

Lawson, E. (2009). The Australian Defence Environment. Australian Defence Force Journal, 179, pp. 70-81.

 

White, H. (2007). Four Decades of the Defence of Australia: Reflections on Australian Defence Policy over the Past 40 Years. (As found in Huisken, R & Thatcher, M. (eds). History as Policy: Framing the Debate on the Future of Australia’s Defence Policy. Canberra: ANU Press and Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, pp. 163-187).